Pre-frailty, frailty, and multimorbidity: prevalences and associated characteristics from two French national surveys

Publié le 1 Octobre 2016
Mis à jour le 5 juillet 2019

Objective: to estimate the prevalence of pre-frailty, frailty and multimorbidity in individuals without disability in France. To describe independent determinants of each indicators. Design: two nationally representative cross-sectional French surveys. Settings: wave 2012 of the Health, Health Care and Insurance Survey (Enquête Santé et Protection Sociale, ESPS) and data from the Disability Healthcare Household section Survey (Enquête Handicap Santé Ménages, HSM) from 2008. Participants: two representative samples of the French population aged 55 and older (n=4,328 and n=12,295). Measurements: frailty was assessed using Fried's frailty phenotype and multimorbidity was defined as having had at least two groups of the following groups of comorbidities in the last 12 months (cardio or cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, arthralgia, depression). Independent determinants were studied using weighted logistic regressions. Results: in the French population over 55 and free of disability, 55 to 62% of individuals were either frail, pre-frail or multimorbid, 22 to 25% being frail or multimorbid. ESPS and HSM prevalences for frailty (11.1% [9.3%-12.1%] and 12.3% [11.5%-13.0%]) and multimorbidity (14.9% [13.6%-16.2%] and 16.8% [15.9%-17.7%]) were consistent across studies. Both frailty and multimorbidity prevalences were associated with age. On the other hand, pre-frailty prevalence varied consistently between studies (from 38 to 48%) and was not significantly associated with age. We found that more than 60% of frail subjects did not present with multimorbidity and around 70% of subjects with multimorbidity were not frail. Determinants of pre-frailty and multimorbidity but not frailty depended on sex. Similar factors were associated with frailty and multimorbidity in women (older age, functional decline, poor mental health, financial difficulties) while only poor mental health was independently associated with both indicators in men. Conclusion: our study highlights that in France, among individuals older than 55 years-old and free of disability, around 25% are either frail or multimorbid; another 30% to 40% being pre-frail. Pre-frailty, frailty and multimorbidity are known to be associated with adverse health outcomes and important economic costs. The health system must adapt to respond to the needs of its aging population. In addition, given the efficient impact of prevention actions, our findings emphasize the need to implement prevention strategies against Frailty and multimorbidity in France.

Auteur : Le Cossec C, Perrine AL, Beltzer N, Fuhrman C, Carcaillon Bentata L
The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 2016, vol. 20, n°. 8, p. 860-69