French Guiana is a European ultraperipheric region located on the northern Atlantic coast of South America. It constitutes an important forested region for biological conservation in the Neotropics. Although very sparsely populated, with its inhabitants mainly concentrated on the Atlantic coastal strip and along the two main rivers, it is marked by the presence and development of old and new epidemic disease outbreaks, both research and health priorities. In this review paper, we synthetize 15 years of multidisciplinary and integrative research at the interface between wildlife, ecosystem modification, human activities and sociodemographic development, and human health. This study reveals a complex epidemiological landscape marked by important transitional changes, facilitated by increased interconnections between wildlife, land-use change and human occupation and activity, human and trade transportation, demography with substantial immigration, and identified vector and parasite pharmacological resistance. Among other French Guianese characteristics, we demonstrate herein the existence of more complex multi-host disease life cycles than previously described for several disease systems in Central and South America, which clearly indicates that today the greater promiscuity between wildlife and humans due to demographic and economic pressures may offer novel settings for microbes and their hosts to circulate and spread. French Guiana is a microcosm that crystallizes all the current global environmental, demographic and socioeconomic change conditions, which may favor the development of ancient and future infectious diseases.
Auteur : de Thoisy Benoît, Duron Olivier, Epelboin Loïc, Musset Lise, Quénel Philippe, Roche Benjamin, Binetruy Florian, Briolant Sébastien, Carvalho Luisiane, Chavy Agathe, Couppié Pierre, Demar Magalie, Douine Maylis, Dusfour Isabelle, Epelboin Yanouk, Flamand Claude, Franc Alain, Ginouvès Marine, Gourbière Sébastien, Houël Emeline, Kocher Arthur, Lavergne Anne, Le Turnier Paul, Mathieu Luana, Murienne Jérôme, Nacher Mathieu, Pelleau Stéphane, Prévot Ghislaine, Rousset Dominique, Roux Emmanuel, Schaub Roxane, Talaga Stanislas, Thill Pauline, Tirera Sourakhata, Guégan Jean-François
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2021, vol. 93, p. 1-18