Whole genome analysis detects the emergence of a single Salmonella enterica serovar Chester clone in Japan's Kanto region

Publié le 27 juillet 2021
Mis à jour le 29 novembre 2021

In Japan's Kanto region, the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Chester infections increased temporarily between 2014 and 2016. Concurrently with this temporal increase in the Kanto region, S. Chester isolates belonging to one clonal group were causing repetitive outbreaks in Europe. A recent study reported that the European outbreaks were associated with travelers who had been exposed to contaminated food in Morocco, possibly seafood. Because Japan imports a large amount of seafood from Morocco, we aimed to establish whether the temporal increase in S. Chester infections in the Kanto region was associated with imported Moroccan seafood. Short sequence reads from the whole-genome sequencing of 47 S. Chester isolates from people in the Kanto region (2014-2016), and the additional genome sequences from 58 isolates from the European outbreaks, were analyzed. The reads were compared with the complete genome sequence from a S. Chester reference strain, and 347 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. These SNPs were used in this study. Cluster and Bayesian cluster analyses showed that the Japanese and European isolates fell into two different clusters. Therefore, Φ PT and ISA values were calculated to evaluate genetic differences between these clusters. The results revealed that the Japanese and European isolates were genetically distinct populations. Our root-to-tip analysis showed that the Japanese isolates originating from one clone had accumulated mutations, suggesting that an emergence of this organism occurred. A minimum spanning tree analysis demonstrated no correlation between genetic and geographical distances in the Japanese isolates, suggesting that the emergence of the serovar in the Kanto region did not involve person-to-person contact; rather, it occurred through food consumption. The d N /d S ratio indicated that the Japanese strain has evolved under positive selection pressure. Generally, a population of bacterial clones in a reservoir faces negative selection pressure. Therefore, the Japanese strain must have existed outside of any reservoir during its emergence. In conclusion, S. Chester isolates originating from one clone probably emerged in the Kanto region via the consumption of contaminated foods other than imported Moroccan seafood. The emerging strain may have not established a reservoir for survival in the food supply chain resulting in its disappearance after 2017.

Auteur : Ando Naoshi, Sekizuka Tsuyoshi, Yokoyama Eiji, Aihara Yoshiyuki, Konishi Noriko, Matsumoto Yuko, Ishida Kumiko, Nagasawa Koo, Jourdan-Da Silva Nathalie, Suzuki Motoi, Kimura Hirokazu, Le Hello Simon, Murakami Koichi, Kuroda Makoto, Hirai Shinichiro, Fukaya Setsuko
Frontiers in Microbiology, 2021, vol. 12, p. 1-11