Association between the COVID-19 pandemic and pertussis derived from multiple nationwide data sources, France, 2013 to 2020

Publié le 21 septembre 2022
Mis à jour le 20 septembre 2022

Background Interventions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic may impact other respiratory diseases. Aims: We aimed to study the course of pertussis in France over an 8-year period including the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with COVID-19 mitigation strategies, using multiple nationwide data sources and regression models. Methods: We analysed the number of French pertussis cases between 2013 and 2020, using PCR test results from nationwide outpatient laboratories (Source 1) and a network of the paediatric wards from 41 hospitals (Source 2). We also used reports of a national primary care paediatric network (Source 3). We conducted a quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis, relying on negative binomial regression models. The models accounted for seasonality, long-term cycles and secular trend, and included a binary variable for the first national lockdown (start 16 March 2020). Results: We identified 19,039 pertussis cases from these data sources. Pertussis cases decreased significantly following the implementation of mitigation measures, with adjusted incidence rate ratios of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04-0.26) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.07-0.66) for Source 1 and Source 2, respectively. The association was confirmed in Source 3 with a median?of, respectively, one (IQR: 0-2) and 0 cases (IQR: 0-0) per month before and after lockdown (p?=?0.0048). ConclusionsThe strong reduction in outpatient and hospitalised pertussis cases suggests an impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on pertussis epidemiology. Pertussis vaccination recommendations should be followed carefully, and disease monitoring should be continued to detect any resurgence after relaxation of mitigation measures.

Auteur : Matczak Soraya, Levy Corinne, Fortas Camille, Cohen Jérémie F, Béchet Stéphane, Aït El Belghiti Fatima, Guillot Sophie, Trombert-Paolantoni Sabine, Jacomo Véronique, Savitch Yann, Paireau Juliette, Brisse Sylvain, Guiso Nicole, Lévy-Bruhl Daniel, Cohen Robert, Toubiana Julie
Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 2022, vol. 27, n°. 25