From importation to autochthonous transmission: Drivers of chikungunya and dengue emergence in a temperate area

Publié le 11 mai 2020
Mis à jour le 22 juin 2020

Background: the global spread of Aedes albopictus has exposed new geographical areas to the risk of dengue and chikungunya virus transmission. Several autochthonous transmission events have occurred in recent decades in Southern Europe and many indicators suggest that it will become more frequent in this region in the future. Environmental, socioeconomic and climatic factors are generally considered to trigger the emergence of these viruses. Accordingly, a greater knowledge of the determinants of this emergence in a European context is necessary to develop adapted surveillance and control strategies, and public health interventions. Methodology/principal findings: using French surveillance data collected from between 2010 and 2018 in areas of Southern France where Ae. albopictus is already established, we assessed factors associated with the autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya. Cases leading to autochthonous transmission were compared with those without subsequent transmission using binomial regression. We identified a long reporting delay (≥ 21 days) of imported cases to local health authorities as the main driver for autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Southern France. The presence of wooded areas around the cases" place of residence and the accumulation of heat during the season also increased the risk of autochthonous arbovirus transmission. Conclusions: our findings could inform policy-makers when developing strategies to the emerging threats of dengue and chikungunya in Southern Europe and can be extrapolated in this area to other viruses such as Zika and yellow fever, which share the same vector. Furthermore, our results allow a more accurate characterization of the environments most at risk, and highlight the importance of implementing surveillance systems which ensure the timely reporting and of imported cases and swift interventions.

Auteur : Jourdain Frédéric, Roiz David, de Valk Henriette, Noël Harold, L'Ambert Grégory, Franke Florian, Paty Marie-Claire, Guinard Anne, Desenclos Jean-Claude, Roche Benjamin
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2020, vol. 14, n°. 5, p. 1-19