For a good night's sleep, we consensually recommend avoiding alcohol, smoking and drugs. However, these addictions are highly prevalent in the general population, and it is difficult to estimate their real impact on sleep. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sleep habits and disorders, and addictions. The design was a telephone crossover national recurrent health poll survey (Santé publique France, Baromètre santé, 2017; Questionnaire, pp. 53; Saint Maurice) in a representative sample of French adults. There were 12,367 subjects (18-75 years old) who answered the survey. Sleep log items assessed sleep schedules (total sleep time) on work and leisure days: at night, while napping, and over 24 hr using a sleep log. Retained items include: (1) short sleep (= 6 hr/24 hr); (2) chronic insomnia (International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3(rd) edition criteria); and (3) chronotype (evening-morning-neutral). Psychoactive substances retained included tobacco (current or former users), alcohol (daily consumption and weekly binge drinking), cannabis (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test), and other drugs (consumption during the past year). We found that: (1) daily smokers (lightly or heavily dependent) were more frequently short sleepers than occasional smokers and non-smokers; (2) heavily dependent daily smokers were more likely to suffer from insomnia than other smokers or non-smokers; (3) short sleep and insomnia were not significantly associated with the consumption of alcohol, cannabis or any other drug; (4) the evening chronotype was significantly associated with the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. In conclusion, our study highlights significant relationships between the use of psychoactive substances and sleep characteristics among adults, emphasizing the need to take into account each subject individually.
Auteur : Leger Damien, Andler Raphaël, Richard Jean-Baptiste, Nguyen-Thanh Viêt, Collin Olivier, Chennaoui Mounir, Metlaine Arnaud
Journal of sleep research, 2022, vol. 31, n°. 5, p. e13553