Vaccination contre les HPV : un enjeu de prévention des cancers

Publié le 1 mai 2019
Mis à jour le 29 octobre 2019

In France, every year, HPVs cause approximately 6,300 cancers -cervix, anus, oropharynx, penis, vulva, vagina, oral cavity, larynx- representing 2% of all incident cancers, 35,000 precancerous le-sions of the cervix, and at least 50,000 condylomas in the under- 30s. All 3,000 new cases of cervical cancers are attributable to HPV infections. Cervical cancer prevention is based on the combination of two complementary strategies: vaccination of 11 to 14-years-old girls against HPV and organized screening of cervical cancer for women between 25 and 65 years old. In France, the vaccination coverage rate -VCR- against HPV for 2 vaccine doses is less than 25% while it reaches more than 80% in the United Kingdom, Portugal, Australia, etc. This low level of VCR can be explained by the mistrust in these vaccines especially regarding their effectiveness and safety. However, more than 10 years after their commercialization, HPV vaccines have already demonstrated, in many countries, their effectiveness against HPV infections, genital warts and precancerous cervical lesions. In addition, no association between vaccines and autoimmune diseases has been demonstrated, either by national or international surveillance authorities, or by scientific publications, after the commercialization of 200 million doses worldwide. As the International Papillomavirus Society has declared that the combination of a high VCR against HPV and a high participation in cervical cancer screening, combined with appropriate treatment, can lead to the elimination of cervical cancer as a public health problem, it is important to better communicate the scientific findings in order to better understand vaccination's benefits.

Auteur : Rousseau Sophie, Gaillot-de Saintignon Julie, Barret Anne-Sophie
La Revue du praticien, 2019, vol. 69, n°. 5, p. 529-534