Background: enteric fever in France is primarily travel-associated. Characteristics of paediatric cases are scarce and information from field studies in endemic countries might not be generalizable to non-endemic countries. Methods: in this retrospective study, we reviewed all cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever treated in a French paediatric tertiary care centre from 1993 to 2015. Results: fifty cases of enteric fever due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (n = 44) and Paratyphi (n = 6) were identified. Sixty-one percent of the children had travelled to Africa and 34% to the Indian subcontinent. Among travel-associated cases, 85% were visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Ninety-six percent had high fever associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Anaemia (66%), elevated C-reactive protein (80%), transaminitis (87%) and mild hyponatremia (50%) were the main biological findings. Blood cultures were positive in 90% of cases. Twelve strains (24%) were resistant at least to one antibiotic, and all of them had been isolated since 2003, increasing the resistance rate during this last period to 43% (12/28). Ceftriaxone was administered to 71 patients for a median duration of 6 days (interquartile range (IQR): 4-8). The median time to apyrexia after the onset of treatment was 4 days (IQR: 2-5 days). Complications occurred in nine children with five (10%) presenting neurologic disorders. All 50 patients recovered. Conclusion: in France, paediatric enteric fever is mainly a travel-associated disease and occurs in patients returning from a prolonged stay in an endemic area. Children VFR are at high risk and should be a priority target group for pre-travel preventive measures. The increase in antibiotic resistance reflects the situation in endemic countries and is a major concern.
Auteur : Pommelet Virginie, Mariani Patricia, Basmaci Romain, Tourdjman Mathieu, Morin Laurence, Gaschignard Jean, de Lauzanne Agathe, Lemaitre Chloé, Bonacorsi Stéphane, Faye Albert
Journal of Travel Medicine, 2018, vol. 25, n°. 1, p. 1-7