Of the 40 million donations screened with Nucleic acid testing (NAT) between July 2001 and December 2015 in France, 20 HIV-positive, 13 HCV-positive and 17 HBV (HBV-NAT was initiated in 2005 and extended to the whole country in 2010) donations were discarded thanks to NAT. The main benefit in terms of discarded donations is related to HBV with a yield of 0.88 per million donations, which is 12.5 and 1.8 times higher than for HCV and HIV respectively. The main risk factor found in these donors during the post donation interview was having sex with men for males (n=11, all repeat blood donors), having a partner HCV positive (n=6) or at-risk partner (originated from endemic area or HBV positive) for HBV (n=8) for HIV, HCV and HBV, respectively. Although the mean viral load was high for HIV (5.6 log copies/mL) and HCV (7 log IU/mL), HBV cases show low level of DNA (1.8 log IU/mL) demonstrating the need of a highly sensitive NAT assay. Overall, the clinical benefit for recipients remains those related to the prevention of HIV contaminations since HCV avoided transmissions are extremely rare (only one case in the last 5 years thanks to NAT) and the potential infectivity of HBV-NAT only positive cases is questionable due to the low level of HBV DNA and the presence of anti-HBs in more than a half of DNA positive/HBsAg and anti-HBc negative donors.
Auteur : Laperche S, Tiberghien P, Roche Longin C, Pillonel J
Transfusion clinique et biologique, 2017, vol. 24, n°. 3, p. 182-188