Rift Valley Fever in humans and animals in Mayotte, an endemic situation?

Publié le 11 Septembre 2013
Mis à jour le 5 juillet 2019

Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged $5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.6 4.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.8 32.2). Age ($15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included. (R.A.)

Auteur : Lernout T, Cardinale E, Jego M, Despres P, Collet L, Zumbo B, Tillard E, Girard S, Filleul L
PloS one, 2013, vol. 8, n°. 9, p. e74192