Background: tobacco smoking, alcohol and obesity are important risk factors for a number of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of these risk factors differ by socioeconomic group in most populations, but this socially stratified distribution may depend on the social and cultural context. Little information on this topic is currently available in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and obesity by several socioeconomic determinants in the French West Indies (FWI). Methods: we used data from a cross-sectional health survey conducted in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2014 in a representative sample of the population aged 15-75 years (n = 4054). All analyses were stratified by gender, and encompassed sample weights, calculated to account for the sampling design and correct for non-response. For each risk factor, we calculated weighted prevalence by income, educational level, occupational class and having hot water at home. Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: current smoking and harmful chronic alcohol use were more common in men than in women (PR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.55-2.09; PR = 4.53, 95% CI = 3.38-6.09 respectively). On the other hand, the prevalence of obesity was higher in women than in men (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.57-0.79). Higher education, higher occupational class and higher income were associated with lower prevalence of harmful alcohol drinking in men (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.25-0.72; PR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-1.01; PR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.03 respectively), but not in women. For tobacco smoking, no variation by socioeconomic status was observed in men whereas the prevalence of current smoking was higher among women with higher occupational class (PR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91) and higher income (PR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03). In women, a lower prevalence of obesity was associated with a higher income (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.33-0.56), a higher occupational class (PR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.50-0.80), a higher educational level (PR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.26-0.50) and having hot water at home (PR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.54-0.80). Conclusion: women of high socio-economic status were significantly more likely to be smokers, whereas alcohol drinking in men and obesity in women were inversely associated with socioeconomic status.
Auteur : Auguste Aviane, Dugas Julien, Menvielle Gwenn, Barul Christine, Richard Jean-Baptiste, Luce Danièle
BMC Public Health, 2019, vol. 19, n°. 1, p. 1-9