Early screening is recommended in children exposed to a contagious case of tuberculosis (TB), to prevent rapid progression to active TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of potentially preventable cases of pediatric TB stemming from inadequate screening. The data gathered on children aged 0 to 10 years, who were evaluated by the Paris Center for TB Control (CLAT75) between January 2009 and December 2013, were extracted and retrospectively analyzed. French National Guidelines for screening were used as reference. During the study period, 1232 children 0-10 years were screened, because of a known exposure to an index case, including 124 (10%) with criteria for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and 26 (2%) with active TB. Twelve additional cases of TB were reported, diagnosed based on symptoms or systematic exams. As a whole, 68% of pediatric TB cases were diagnosed at screening around an adult index case, highlighting the quality of the screening network. Among the 38 TB cases, 19 (50%) had a missed opportunity for potential prevention, due to the absence of screening despite a known contaminant (n=2) or to screening not in compliance with current recommendations (n=17). Delayed first evaluation was the most frequent error of the screening procedures. In conclusion, despite the quality of the screening network set up in Paris, half of the pediatric TB cases in this study did not undergo the recommended screening procedures. A significant reduction in the number of pediatric TB cases can be expected through the optimization of screening networks.
Auteur : Ollier V, Antoun F, Thouvenin G, Faye A, Kone-Paut I, Benoist G, Antoine D, Charlois C, Delacourt C
Archives de Pédiatrie, 2018, vol. 25, n°. 7, p. 421-425