Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Martinique in 2016: a prospective study

Publié le 1 Octobre 2017
Mis à jour le 10 septembre 2019

Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been reported to be associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in case reports and retrospective studies, mostly on the basis of serological tests, with the problematic cross-reacting antibodies of the Flavivirus genus. Some GBS cases do not exhibit a high level of diagnostic certainty. This prospective study aimed to describe the clinical profiles and the frequency of GBS associated with ZIKV during the ZIKV outbreak in Martinique in 2016. Methods: we recorded prospective data from GBS meeting levels 1 or 2 of diagnostic certainty for the Brighton Collaboration, with proof of recent ZIKV infection and negative screening for etiologies of GBS. Results: of the sample of 34 patients with suspected GBS during the outbreak, 30 had a proven presence of GBS, and 23 had a recent ZIKV infection. The estimated GBS incidence rate ratio (2016 vs 2006 2015) was 4.52 (95% confidence interval, 2.80 7.64; P = .0001). Recent ZIKV infection was confirmed by urine reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in 17 cases and by serology in 6 cases. Patients, 65% of whom were male, had a median age of 61 years (interquartile range, 56 71 years) and experienced severe GBS. Electrophysiological tests were consistent with the primary demyelinating form of the disease. Conclusions: ZIKV infection is usually benign, when symptomatic, but in countries at risk of ZIKV epidemics, adequate intensive care bed capacity is required for management of severe GBS cases. Arbovirus RNA detection by RT-PCR should be part of the management of GBS cases.

Auteur : Roze B, Najioullah F, Ferge JL, Dorleans F, Apetse K, Barnay JL, Daudens Vaysse E, Brouste Y, Cesaire R, Fagour L, Valentino R, Ledrans M, Mehdaoui H, Abel S, Leparc Goffart I, Signate A, Cabie A
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2017, vol. 65, n°. 9, p. 1462-8