Background. To better document the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in France, we conducted a national case-control study from September 2002 to June 2004. Methods. Cases with confirmed Campylobacter infection were sampled through the national surveillance laboratory network. Cases and controls who were matched for age, as well as attending physicians, were interviewed about foods consumed, food preparation practices, travel history, contact with cases and animals during the 8 days before the onset of infection, and any antibiotic use occurring during the 30 days before onset. Matched odds ratios [ORs] were calculated using conditional logistic regression and multiple imputation methods. Results. A total of 285 pairs of cases and matched controls were enrolled. "Ate undercooked beef" (OR, 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65- 4.95), "ate at restaurant" (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.23-3.93), and "poor utensils hygiene in the kitchen" (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.33-3.37) were the main independent risk factors for infection. Cases infected with a ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strain were more likely than controls to have used antibiotics in the month before onset. Conclusion. Good hygiene practices in the kitchen remain a strong recommendation to avoid crosscontamination. However, studies are needed to explore the mechanism of contamination throughout the food chain. The use of antibiotics in humans may favor the development of a resistant infection.
Auteur : Gallay A, Bousquet V, Siret V, Prouzet Mauleon V, de Valk H, Vaillant V, Simon F, Le Strat Y, Megraud F, Desenclos JC
The Journal of infectious diseases, 2008, vol. 197, n°. 10, p. 1477-84