Large outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis acquired in Southern Corsica, France: monitoring early signs of endemicization?

Publié le 1 Mars 2018
Mis à jour le 5 juillet 2019

Objectives: clustered cases of urogenital schistosomiasis were reported in April 2014 among French and German tourists linked to exposure in the Cavu River, Southern Corsica, France, between 2011 and 2013. We set up national surveillance for autochthonous urogenital schistosomiasis to document the largest possible number of cases in order to identify potential sites of transmission and to determine the extent of the outbreak in France and Corsica. Methods: the early response consisted mostly of prohibiting swimming in the river, performing a nationwide serologic screening of all persons exposed to the river between 2011 and 2013 and treating confirmed cases. Physicians were asked to report all patients with one or more positive antischistosome serologic test. Cases were defined as occurring in a resident of France with serologic evidence of schistosomiasis or schistosome eggs in urine and no history of contact with freshwater in known endemic areas. We documented symptoms as well as place and time of exposure to freshwater for all subjects. To estimate the outbreak size, we modelled the effect of the 2014 nationwide screening on the 2011-2015 time series of serodiagnosed schistosomiasis cases using log-linear autoregression. Results: in 2014, a total of 106 autochthonous cases were reported, including 35 symptomatic infections. All patients had swum in the Cavu during summer 2013. Over 30 000 persons were likely screened for autochthonous schistosomiasis. The model-estimated outbreak size was 338 cases, including 36 serodiagnosed in 2015. Conclusions: besides the 2013 outbreak, there is evidence of small-scale transmission in 2015 in Corsica. Early detection and control of recurrences requires raising community and medical awareness.

Auteur : Noël H, Ruello M, Maccary A, Pelat C, Sommen C, Boissier J, Barré-Cardi H, Fillaux J, Termignon JL, Debruyne M, Chyderiotis G, Durand J, Ramalli L, Chiappini JD, Malfait P, Berry A
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2018, vol. 24, n°. 3, p. 295-300