Epidemiology of human leptospirosis in Mayotte : an emerging public health problem on the island?

Publié le 13 Août 2013
Mis à jour le 5 juillet 2019

Background : Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis, with a high incidence in countries with a tropical climate. When reported, the disease is endemic in most countries in the Indian Ocean. Methods : In Mayotte, a French overseas department located in the northern Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean, surveillance of leptospirosis is based on Real-time PCR confirmed autochthonous cases. Isolates of Leptospira are sent to the French National Reference Center for Leptospirosis for sero- and genotyping. Surveillance of leptospirosis on the island has been progressively reinforced since July 2008. Results : From 2009 to 2011, a total of 312 autochthonous cases of leptospirosis were confirmed on Mayotte, with an overall annual incidence of 51 cases per 100 000. Young adult males are the most highly infected group. Cases occur mainly during the rainy season, with the strongest correlation between number of cases and rainfall found three months after the peak of rainfall. Risk factors for infections by leptospires in Mayotte are multiple, with exposure of the general population during activities of daily living along with occupational exposure. Serogroup distribution differs from what is observed in other countries in the region. Serogroup Mini represents the predominant serogroup (68%). Conclusion : Following reinforced surveillance in Mayotte, leptospirosis is emerging as an important health issue on the island. Human exposure results from the widespread environmental contamination during the rainy season. Further studies on humans and animals are needed to learn more on the specificities of leptospirosis on the island and allow guiding future actions. (R.A.)

Auteur : Lernout T, Collet L, Bourhy P, Achirafi A, Giry C, Picardeau M, Filleul L
Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, 2013, vol. 70, n°. 1, p. 1-6