The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74years and children aged 3-17years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (Œg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (Œg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34Œg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75Œg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9Œg/g of creatinine (10.68Œg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96Œg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42Œg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29Œg/g of creatinine (72.75Œg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels of arsenic (10Œg/g of creatinine). It shows that urinary arsenic concentrations in the French adult population (in particular concentrations of iAs+MMA+DMA) were relatively low compared with foreign data.
Auteur : Saoudi A, Zeghnoun A, Bidondo ML, Garnier R, Cirimele V, Persoons R, Frery N
The Science of the total environment, 2012, vol. 433, p. 206-15